At about 1:30 A.M. on January 1, 2013, the U.S. Senate voted 89 to 8 to pass the "American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012" (H.R. 8, Pub. L. 112-240, or “the Act”) in order to prevent many federal tax increases that would have otherwise occurred automatically on January 1st, as Bush-Era tax cuts were scheduled to expire. Later on the afternoon of January 1st, the House of Representatives voted 257 to 167 to approve the Senate-passed bill without further amendments. President Obama signed the Act on January 3rd.